Myth and Reality

Part 1

Birth and the fall of the Cultures

As we knew the most important factor that initially affects the course of a people’s history is the geographical setting, the terrain, the climate and especially the rivers. Such communities pass from a crude and barbaric beginning, marked by unruly courage and fierce clan solidarity, well described by Ebn e Khaldun (1332-1406) to a dynamic and well-ordered society, poised to wield power, explore natural and human resources, acquire wealth, enjoy leisure, and develop arts and crafts, giving birth in the process to a distinct culture.

The culture thus created develops as long as the community possesses its inner strength and creative power. It has to maintain and safeguard itself against external enemies and internal dissent and subversion. The comfort, leisure, and luxury, and, more importantly, the sheer weight of time that corrodes and enfeebles every dynasty, social order, and culture, eventually sap the energy and exhaust the cultural potentials of the community. The society can no longer defend itself against claimants from within or without, poised to establish a new ruling power and possibly start a new culture. Finally the community becomes subservient to a new, rising culture and drifts along as its cultural or political client.

The total defeat of Elam and the Arab conquest of Sasanian in the 7th century C.E. represent the outcome of cultural fatigue induced by old age

Data of Archeology

The land, which we call it Afghanistan now, has a long and ancient history.

In the light of archeological findings, this land was the important crossroad of different cultures of Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia and Far East.

In the prehistory, the Paleolithic people in the form of different clans and tribes were roaming and living in this area as early as 100,000 B.C.

In the cave of Dara e Kur in Badakhshan province, near the village of Baba Darwishan (Father Dervish) in the northeast, the archaeologists have found (1969) the fragments of Neanderthal skull with the Mousterian-type tool. It dated about 30,000 years ago.

Dr. J. Lawrence Angel, who studied a large human temporal bone, believes that these fragments belong to modern man than Neanderthal one.

There are some evidences, which show, there was an early Neolithic culture based on domestic animals. The Bronze Age remnants show a civilization before and after the Indus Valley (Harappa) of the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC.

Here was the trade center between China, Mesopotamia and Egypt.

In the length of history different people have passed from this land. Some of them had been settled here. The latest figure shows that more than 55 ethnical groups are living here (1986).

Here was the cross roads of trade exchange among China, Mesopotamia and Egypt. The most important precious stone of Lapis laze had been carried for here to East and west.

As the results of these exchange and conquests a lot of different ethic groups of people settled down here and laid a beautiful mosaic carpet of them. According the latest data(1986) more than 50 ethic groups live here. We can divide the most important ethnical groups in three different categories: Indo-European, Turkish and Turkic-Mongolian.


Our Traditional History

As we knew the history of our land, speaking generally, is based on research largely carried out by Western scholars. The results of the European research, is available to us from about the mid-nineteenth century. Before were in the possession of a historical tradition that combined a mixture of myth, legend, and factual history. Its origins can be traced to the oral traditions relating to the Avestan figures but these assumed a national character with the spread of Zoroastrians continued orally transmitted until towards the end of the Sassanid period, when they were committed to writing in a semi-official book called Khowaday-namag. After the advent of Islam, this book, which perhaps survived in more than one version, was translated into Arabic by Ebn ol Moqaffa (d. 757) and possibly by others as well. Later, Persian redactions of it, primarily based on Ebn ol Moqaffaq’s translation, were also made in both prose and verse, including one in prose ordered by Abu Mansur Abdol Razzaq, a governor of Khorasan, around 960, of which only its introduction, usually referred to as “The Older Preface to the Shah Nama” is extant. In all probability it served as the main source for Ferdowsi’s Shah Nama (completed in 1010), which contains the most extensive rendition of the traditional history.

The traditional history is divided into four sections.

(1) The Pishdadid kings, from Gayomarth, the initiator of kingship through Zav. These are the mythological world kings who rule over all creatures on earth. The earlier ones have to face the challenge of the demons created by Ahriman. Through their teachings civilization progresses, arts and crafts are introduced, and useful institutions take shape.

(2) The Kayanid kings, who may be divided into two lines, the major one from Kay Qobad, the founder of the dynasty, to Kay Khosrow, who disappears mysteriously together with his noble warriors, and the second line, which begins with king Lohrasp and ends with Dara who is defeated by Alexander the Great.

(3) The Ashkanid kings or the Arsacids, who are dealt with in a summary fashion.

(4) The Sasanids from Ardashir I to Yazdgerd III, who succumbs to the Muslim Arab invasion.

It is very strange that we cannot find traces of Median and Achaemenid in the Traditional History. The absence of Median rulers and the early Achaemenid kings as Cyrus the Great, Darius, and Xeroxes from traditional history is due to domination of Zoroastrian faith. The traces of such traditions survive only through external evidence by the Greeks who were in touch with them.

Yar Shater mentioned in his article about this kind of Traditional History as,

“Thus the traditional history, far from reflecting a search for critical facts, is a work which combines myth and legend, fact and fantasy, wonder and wit, moral precepts and rules of conduct, examples of heroism, loyalty, ambition, and sacrifice, and human frailty in the clutches of an inexorable fate; and it aims to instruct, entertain, edify, and bolster the sense of Iranian identity according to the Iranian worldview of the Sassanid era.”

Our famous histories writers, without looking with critical view of points entered these myths and stories in History.

  • Fayz Mohammad Kateb in his histories Seraj ol Tawarikh (1912-14) quoting other sources mentioned Pishdadids and Kayanids. He believes that in that time our land named Kabulestan and Zabolestan. Thus he without making difference between myths and realities enter it in history.

  • Ahamd Ali Kohzad lived and worked at a time which the ideas of Aryan Supper Race by the support of Hitler and his circle were trumpeting vary widely. At that time our rulers who were controlling the country with Great Despotism followed the suit. He with very enthusiasm was working on this subject. He at that time was the president of Historical Society more than one decade. He in his book History of Afghanistan (1946) in the chapter of Pishdadis on the base of Avesta called them the first Kings. Then on discussion about Yama call him the first king of Aryans. It is better to quote some sentence for his book. They shed strong light to mythical of this story,’’ It is must to say that in that prosperous time there was not very much warm and no cold (weather) there was no age and no death no ghosts and jealousy. All people lived in calm and tranquility.’’

It is very interesting that even he was a history researcher and the president of Society of History without taking any critical points, accept this myth as reality. What we have quoted above is nothing except full fledge of a lost Paradise and Golden City.

It is very interesting that even today some of our writers believe and provoke this myth as reality.

  • Then Gholam Mohammad Ghobar our other historian in the second half of 20th century in his book Afghanistan in the Course of History repeated this myth. He says,’’ Zahak the king of Semitic attack here and put end to the rule of Yam or Jamshid the king of Pishdadis. He bases his ideas on Shah Namas without putting critical points and not draws a line between myth and reality.

  • A.H.Habibi on the same time in his book Short History of Afghanistan (1967) repeats that myth and enters it to history.

  • Seddiq Farhang in his historical book, Afghanistan in the Last five Century (1988) pointing to this time and believes that this is the dawn of our history.

This is very interesting that some of our writers who claim that searching on our history with scientific outlook repeat this side of mythical and trying to enter it to real history.

We are witness that the different name of Aryans dominating the culture of our names.

Thus according to these data we cannot look objectively to our past.

We in the Historical bed

For looking to past of this land we must peel the different historical layers, especially the cultural one.

I believe that if we seek our past in the narrow framework of Political-Geographical borders which encircle our land now, cannot put a little foot more than on century. These borders were put down around the neck of our land in the last decade of 19th century.

It is clear more than sun that Britain and Russian two Empires of that time were great powers. In the reign of Britain the sun was not goes down. The land of Russia colonies was extended for raising sun in East of Asia to sitting down in Europe. These two Super Power as they were called them at that time as an Octopus crept to our land.

These two super powers were in a position to impose their will in shaping the form of different countries. They by the scissor of their own benefit, cut down the mosaic cloth different ethnic groups who had been woven in length of our long history and tailoring it as the Dervish mantel and put on the shoulder of our so called Amir (It is an Arabic word and means: Head of Moslems countries, Ruler, Chief of Military, Chief of tribes, ethnics or clans and a rank lower than King and who runs all political and military affairs. Amir ol Momenin mean the Commander of Faithful. It is the title of Moslem Caliphs or successor of Mohammad the prophet of Islam. S.T).They made true the dream of the Iron Amir and put a wall around his land. Then we had this legacy as BORDERS.

Thus, on the surface of geographical map a country emerged which composed of ethnic minorities.

So for going deep in the past of this land we must talk of a land between three rivers named: Amo or Oxus, Sind or Indus and Ser, Jaihun and Jaxartes.

Taking this point in to consideration, we must note that land between Amo or Oxus, Jaxartes or Shash and Indus rivers shows the important point of Indus Civilization. (4000-1500 BC).

Before people who talked Indo-European language, we can see that in this triangle there was a splendid civilization by the name of Indus and Helmand.

First Chapter of our History

We can call it the first chapter of this land history. The discovery of Mudigak in 35Km. NW of Kandahar, on the bank of Keshk e Nakhud River and Deh Morsai Ghundi or Mound of Morsai Village in the South West of Afghanistan showed that these two places connected to Indus Civilization. It was exacted in (1951) by French archeologist. As the data shows, they are belonged to pre history time and are on the same ranks as Mohenjo Daro and Harappa in Pakistan and Shanidar in Iraq. It is necessary to note that the influence of the civilization between the three rivers of Indus, Amo and Shash has close relations with Mesopotamia civilization too.

The discovery of Indus Civilization (1920s) brought to light a new chapter of though among scholars. We can see the most important points as:

1-IC was a new discovery in this era.

2- The date of IC was before coming of the people who were talking in Indo-European languages. Their most important books of these two languages are Rig Vida and Avesta two twin sisters.

These documents show that this civilization was in its peak in 3600-1900 B.C the date before coming or entering the people who were talking Indo-European languages. Wee knew that the date and time in oldest books of Rig Vida and its twin sister Avesta not goes back than 1500 B.C.

Agricultural Villages and Civilization

As we knew the agricultural villages has played important and vital role in the flourishing of every civilization including the Indus.

The presence of these primitive villages of paved the way for flourishing of cities and civilizations too. It provide possibilities for people to concentrate their efforts for developing political,religious and technology.

In this area, the land between Amo, Shash and Indus rivers is the center of this new discovered civilization.

Mudigak and Morasi

The two archeological sites of Mudigak and Deh Morasai were studied by Dupree (1961).He says that these two sites had played very important role in the making of IC.

W. Vogelsanggg, in his book Afghans (2002), whenever who is talking about Mundigak use the word of Helmand Civilization.

Later Situations

From second Millennium BC onward the people who were talking in Indo-European languages immigrated or came by force and aggressions to this land. As we know these groups of languages have two main branches: Indo- Iranian and Indo-Aryan.

The first one including Persian, Pashtu, Kurdish, Baluch languages and so. The second one has sub language of Indian, Bengaline, and Nepalese.

The people who were living here were talking in non Indo-European languages. We can see the traces of these kinds of languages as Brahui which belong to Dravidian language.

The people who were talking in no-European languages were living here before the coming of Indo-European language speaking one.

Historical Facts

According to historical evidences, especially petrography or sandstone Median for the first time made a big kingdom. It ext-anted from Mesopotamia of East to Bacteria to West. Cyrus the great (559-529BC) the emperor of Achaemenids defeated Medians and ruled these areas.

Darius the first (522- 486 BC), captured the provinces of Haravial/Aria or Herat, Baxtish/Bacteria or Balkh, Thatagush/Sattagydia or Ghazni to Indus Valley, Haravatish/Arachosia or Kandahar, Zaranka/ Drangiana or Sistan.

Note: The names in Italics belong to Old Persian language.

In the writings of Citesthaeee famous physician in court of Achamenchians we can trace the people of Bactrian and in Herodotus of Saks or Scythian.

Alexander the great passed it before entering to India (327 BC)

Then Seleucid’s Dynasty which its founder is Sleucus the first (358BC) ruled it. There are ruins of an outpost Greek city which has been built about (325 BC), in the bank of Amo and Kowkcha rivers in the north of Afghanistan.

Then Mauryas from India by Ashoka came in the scene. Then the local rulers of Greco- Bacteria, Parthian, Kushans, Sassanid, Hephthalites and so and so…

Arabs with the Islam religion in their flag entered here in 7th century. They after two hundred years of struggle dominated this land with the help of its own people’s leaders. But the ordinary people tried to guards its culture especially their languages.

This cross section emigrations and aggressions made a kind of ethnical mosaic canvas of this land. Morgensterne the most famous Norwegian linguistic who started his research from 1924s onward in the field in Afghanistan says that this area is the treasure of languages and culture too.

Afghans as an ethic group are a piece of big mosaic tubule of this land.


The history of Afghans, like every people, starts from Myths and then goes to the Reality. I’m trying here, to start from Myths and then to the Reality.


The early history of Afghans, shrouded with the prehistory myths and stories. Afghan historian and writers, due to different causes, even to time of Rowshaniana in 16th century, had not paid any attention to find the roots of their people.

We and this outlook


Book of Ayin Akbari or Akbar Nama which means rules of Akbar(1597-98), which has been written by Abol Fadl, is the oldest document in which indicated that Afghan believe that they are from Jewish stock. Then the different writers followed this path. Akhund Darwizah in his book “Tazkera Ashrar wa Abrar” (1603-1613) The Biography of the Wicked and Good People, and Nematolla Herawi in his book, “Tarikhe Jahan Khani wa Makhzan e Afghani” (The History of Jahan Khani and the Treasure of Afghani” (1612-1613), without paying any deep attention to the realities, followed the suit

As we indicated, Nematolla Herewith, believed, Afghan was the eldest son of King Saul or in Hebrew or Hebraic language, Shaul or Malek Talut. According to Bible, he by Judge Samuel and vote of people was elected as the first king of Israel. He indicated that Afghans reach in ten generations to Abraham and 20 generation to Adam!

Thus Afghans lived in Palestine. Their next generations captured by Sargon the second king of Assures in (722 B.C). Then, they expelled by Bakhoto Nars (Nebuchadnezzar) the king of Babylon who conquered Jerusalem in (586 B.C.). They sent them to Mountains area or as they call it Ghur, which is situated in the central of Afghanistan now.

According to the Philology and linguistic sciences, there is no any connection between Afghan and Hebrews languages. The Afghan language belongs to what linguistics named it Indo-European language and Hebrew to Semitic language.

View Points of European

European after coming to Asia made contact to different people and cultures too.

Henry Vansittart in 1784 found a book by the name of Asrar Afghana or the Secrets of Afghans. As reality it is the concise translation of a book that had been written in Pashtu by Hossain son of Saber. He translates it into English and sent with a letter to Sir W. Jones who discovered the Indo-European languages groups for the first time.

He spread the legendary belief that Afghans are from Jewish stock. Then A. Barnes 1832, W. Moorcraft 1825, C.Masson, G.Rose 1852, H.Bellew and H.G.Raverty 1854 without searching the facts, followed the suit. It even repeated in Jewish Encyclopedia. They based their finding on Traditional Genealogy who was picked up by oral stories. They even heard it from Amir Dust Mohammad.

It was M. Elphinstone 1815 who for the first time put it under questions. Then B, Dorn the famous Orientals reached to this conclusion that Afghans from view points of linguistic science belong to Indo-European languages. But it was Morgensterne, who put an end point to this myth.


Kyse, Qais or Quais ul-Laik or Abdo Rashid

According to this tradition of Afghans genealogy, whatever is their merit, all commence from Kyse, Qais or Abdol Rashid. They say that Kyse or Qais in the time of Mohammad, the prophet of Islam, 7th century, went to Arabia and become Moslem in the hand of Mohammad. Then he gave him the name of Abdol Rashid. According to this legend, Khaled bene Walid the famous Arabian worrier, under the command of Kyse or A. Rashid, conquered Syria. But Arabian historian contrary to this myth had not mentioned Kyse. They and are silent about the name of Afghan too. This genealogy can’t be relied upon as historical sources.

With the deeper glance to the book of Nematolla, we can find a kind of nostalgia for the past. In this way they are trying to connect them to the myth figures like Solomon to David. It is very strange that Nematolla, himself says that this Genealogy of Afghans had been written by Haibat Kahn e Kakar, and he copied it to his book.

It is very interesting that Menhaj Seraj in his book “Tabaqate Naseri (The history of Naseri), rejected this myth of Jewish and Mountains of Ghur.

According to The Encyclopedia of Islam, “The roots of this theory reach to the book of Tarikh e Jahan Kahni wa Makhzane Afghani. It is a fact that Moslem in different part of the world, trying to connect them to Mohammad the messenger or his descendants.”

We can put a lot of question about. We can reach to this conclusion that this is a pure myths and legends.

There are some other legends too:

  1. Afghans or Pathans, believe that Qais is buried in Solayman (Solomon) mountains or De Kase Ghar (In Pashtu it means Mountains of Qais) in Khorasan or Kaker Khorasan, the tract immediately to west of Solayman (Solomon) mountains in Zhob district of Pakistan The Solayman range of mountains lies between the Gomel river and the north Indus.

  2. According to some legends, Noah’s Ark, after the Deluge, alighted on peak of Solayman.

  3. The other legend says that Solayman (Solomon) who, according to story, once came to Indian subcontinent to marry a lady named Belqis. While he was returning with his bride on his flying thorn or carpet, the lady requested him to stop for a while to enable her to take a last fond of her native land. There upon the flying thorn descended on this peak, which became the name of Takht e Solaiman or Solomon’s Thorn.

We can reach to these conclusions that these are pure myths and legends too.

Habibolla Tazhi, the famous modern Afghan writer, in his book, Pashtana, writes about as, ”Some historian are trying to connect Afghans to Israelis, Egyptians, Mongolian, Armenians, Tatarian, Hephthlitess, Sacks, Rajpotian, Brahmans, Jats (Gypsies), Greeks, Turks and even Arabs.””


Some Afghan history writers, at the 30th decades of 20th century, on the path of finding and making a kind of Identity, specially National and new one, emphasizing that Ahmad Abadli (1747) was the founder of Afghanistan. I think he had not the intention of establishing a country by the name of Afghanistan. A lot of historian, called his territory and land of his rule as Abdali and then Dorrani Empire and even the king of Khorasan. This theory draws a Red Line, and cut short our long history to 18th century.

According to viewpoints of some historians, Amir A. Rahman, (1880-1901), is the founder of contemporary Afghanistan. At that time, the international borders of this land were drawn. The dream of Abdol Rahman, as he mentioned himself, has changed to reality and came true. He called it as Yaghestan (The land of Rebels). We can call it Land of the Unruly, the Land of Free and the Land of Insolence. (L. Dupree 1997).

The word of Afghan in the old texts

  1. Afghan is an old name. Some scholars among them Mr. Mojawer Ahmad Zyar, believes that the word of Afghan had been written down in the Sassanid periods documents, especially in Shahpur the first (273-260 BC) decree which engraved in Takht e Jamshid or Throne of Jam petrography as A-bgan and A-pagan.(His correspondents to me.2006)

  2. Some of Philologists argue that the word of Afghan has been driven from word of Ashvake which in Sanskrit means Horse.

  3. Panini, the famous linguistics of 5th century had recoded it as Ashvakayan.

  4. Varahamihira, or Varaha or Mihira (505-587, Ujian, India) was the famous, Philosophy, Astronomer and Mathematician of India. His famous book named Panca-Siddhantika or Five Books in Sanskrit. He had written about Astronomy of Greek, Rome and Alexandria. He had made a complete picture of India of 6th century. He mentioned the word of Afghan as Avaganas -- It is worth to mention that the ordinary people in Afghanistan call it Awghan yet -- in his book, Brhat-Samhita. He had written in his book as, “Under this comet, there are these lands: Mountainous Trenches, Pahlavians, Sotians, Kolans and Avagans…the cruel and arrogant people”

  5. In the seventh century, the famous Chinese pilgrim, Hüsan Tsang or Hiun-Tsiang has noted down it as Abojan, which is Afghan in Chinese language. It is a district which was located somewhere in the borderland between Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is worth to mention that the identification of these two names is still disputed.

I, think that Arabs aggressors or conquerors have changed the word of Avagana, Avgan or Abgan to the Afghan They have changed V to F (ف) and G to GH (غ), according to their apparatus of pronunciation.

The word of Afghan in the new texts

Afghans in the 8th and 9th centuries, when they put their worriers forces in the service of the big conquers in the line of Take and Give, entered the political history of this land.

Prof. A. K. Thakur, Ph.D. in his famous book “India and the Afghan: A study of a Neglected Region, (1370-1576),” writes that environmental forces and facts made Afghans as the strong worriers… In this way, whenever the Moslem conquers or the Sultans (kings) of Delhi, wanted to make a fierce fighting against their enemies, used the Chief of Afghans and their tribal armies”

According to the book of Fereshta (688/1192), this was started from service to Soboktagin(976-997) of the Ghaznavid Dynasty and continued to the Big Game in 20th century and going on, even today.

In the following books we can trace the word of Afghan.

  1. First of all the book of Hodud al- Alam Menal Mashreq e Elal Maghreb (The Boundaries or Regions of World from East to West), which his author is unknown is the first reliable reference to name of Afghan. This book had been written at the time of Mohammad ben e Ahmad Faraighun from the dynasty of Faraighun, contemporary of Nuh ben e Mansur, from the Samanids family. It had been written in (972). He, in his book at the chapter of “Talk about India and its Cites”, in page (16a) of the original book and page (19) of Minoriskyranslation, under the name of Saul, after mentioning the city of Gardiz, in No. (47) called it the border city between Ghazni and India. Then he mentioned that this city is on the upper slopes of a valley. There is a strong fort surrounded with three walls. Their residents are called Kharejit. Then is talking about Saul-may be Shal which Baihaqi mentioned it several times in his famous history—says as “Saul, is a pleasant village on a mountain. In it live Afghans. And as you go then to Husaynan, the road passes between two mountains, and crosses from seventy-tow torrents (Water or in Persian a’b آب). The road is full of dangers and terrors.’’

In his book, we can find under No. (49), he explains about the city of Husynan and says, “It is a city which situated in hot desert”. He mentioned in No. (50).The name of Ninhar or Banihar city - may be the province of Nangarhar which is in the south of Kabul now-and says about as, “It is a place that the King tires to show that he is Moslem. He has a lot of wives. He has thirty Moslem wives. Among them there are Afghans and Indians. His rest wives are Idol worshipers.

  1. Otbi, or Mohammed ben e Abdol Jabar, (d.427/1049), is the compiler of Yamani history. This historian book is about Mahmud Ghaznavids and his family. He has written it in Arabic language and then Abol Sahraf Naseh ben e Zafar Jarfadqani or Golpayagani, one of the famous writers in the time of Seljuk dynasty in11th century. He translated it in to Persian language. He in his book in the chapter of “About Afghans’’ writes as: “…Sultan (Mahmud) fought some Afghan tribes who have captured the castles and mountains of our land. When the king was returning from the battle of Qonnuj, they attacked his forces. He for taking the revenge attacked them and destroyed their nests and ended their rebellious acts and put them on swords and killed a lot of people.”

  2. Abu Raihan Mohammad Biruni, the famous philosophy and mathematician of Khwarizmi, (362-442/973-1050) compiled the book India or Tahqiq Malhand. It is a book about religions, literature, geography, chronology, astronomy, tradition, horoscopes and law of India. He, in his book in the 18th chapter, page (102), mentioning the sources of Indus or Sind River and the border of North and West North of India stated as “The Sind or Indus rivers, raises in the mountain of Unangin the territory of Turks…Here is the end of the north border of India…In the mountains of western border of India to Indus valley live a lot of Afghan tribes”

  3. Khwaja Abol Fazl Mohammad ben e Hossain Baihaqi (385-470/995-1080), in his famous history book “Tarikh e Baihaqi” (The History of Baihaqi) mentioned more than fourth times the word of shal which is equal to shahr or shar city in Persian and Pashtu languages respectively. This city of Shal situated in Ghazni, south west of Kabul the capital of Afghanistan. As Baihaqi mentioned, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna had built a big and splendid palace there. He in page (821) of his history writes as “… and on Friday, 21st of month, he has arrived with pompous to the capital and rested in the palace of Mahmudi (Praiseworthy) in Afghan Shal.”

  4. Abu Saied Abdol Hai bne e Zahak bne e Mahmud Gardizi in his book Zin ol Akhbar, (The Best News) (441/1050). In page (102) writes about as, “When Amir, (Massud) arrived in Hopian - It is now in the North of Kabul, in Parwan district - settled there. Then he ordered Amir Majdud and sent him with tow thousands soldiers to Molten and sent Amir Izid Yar (His son) to Ghaznin (Ghazni) mountains. There were Afghan rebellious people and said: Keep calm that province and do not let it to be disorder and stormy.”

  5. According to Fereshta (588/1192) in the army which recruited by Muazez ol Din Mohmad, the son of Sam were Turks, Tajiks, and Afghans. His Indian opponent, Prithwi Raj, assembled a force of Rajputs and Afghan horsemen. It shows that Afghans were battling in two trenches.

  6. Ibn e Battuta, who travelled in the thirteen-century from Morocco to China has recorded that Afghan lives between Ghazni and the Indus valley.

  7. Babor, the emperor of Indian Mogul, in16th century in his memories named Tozuk e Babori, had noted down that in the south of Kabul, the tribes of Afghans were living.

  8. Some linguistics who had studied the different old languages in the field in Afghanistan, argue that probably – since this was not agreed by some scholars - they are the decedents of Sakes or Scythian. We can trace their profile in the castle of Darush (r.486-522 BC) Apadan. They have long shirts and long trouser and wore such a head cover that it covers their head, chin neck. They have long and straight hair and their bread is the same.

They in the tenth century passed the high passes to the south and settled in the land between Farah, in southwest and Solayman (Solomon) mountains in the east. It looks that some centuries ago they had mixed with remnants of Turks by the name of Ephthtdlites. (5th century)

End of Part 1

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